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Category: protocols

OSPF – Routing Bit set on this LSA

OSPF – Routing Bit set on this LSA

Navigating the OSPF LSDB to find relevant LSAs can be tricky. Even when you find the right LSA, there is no guarantee that OSPF will include that LSA in it’s SPF calculation. Thankfully Cisco routers will tell you if the router advertising that LSA is reachable or not.

OSPF – Type-5 E1 path cost calculation

OSPF – Type-5 E1 path cost calculation

How does a Type-5 E1 path calculation work?  Does the E1 auto-magically have it’s cost incremented is passes from the ASBR to the receiving router?  If not, how does it work? If you read this blog long enough you’ll notice that I get stuck easily and often. When that happens I like to lab stuff up and share my lessons learned.  

OSPF – Why have a Type-4 LSA?

OSPF – Why have a Type-4 LSA?

Type-4  LSAs always seemed like an ugly afterthought to me.  I know it’s irrational and ignorant but the type-4 seemed to disturb the symmetry of OSPF.  I cursed the type-5 for needing this kludgy type-4 helper. However, time was short, so I acknowledged my ignorance, rote-learned the type-4 and moved on. When I later revisited OSPF for a deeper understanding I got confused and questioned if a type-4 really was necessary.  [Hint: John Moy is considerably smarter than me! ]  In…

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My 10G switch goes up to 11

My 10G switch goes up to 11

Stealing bits Nailing down the true speed of a 10GbE link can be tricky. For a start you to define ‘speed’ and ‘capacity’. Ivan Pepelnjak offers a nice summary in this post. Then there are little surprises. A former colleague of mine Fred Westermark first introduced me to the Ethernet interframe gap. I had never heard of this before and felt a bit cheated to be honest.  Since when do ‘bits’ need a rest. Pfff.

OSPF – LSInfinity != LSInfinity

OSPF – LSInfinity != LSInfinity

LSInfinity has two different values I have mentioned ‘LSInfinity’ in the max-metric post and in an earlier post on withdrawing OSPF routes.   However if you look closely at each post you’ll see that LSinfinity had a different value in each of those posts .   What gives?  It turns out that the term LSinfinity has been overloaded somewhat in the RFCs and has different values and meanings for different LSAs.

OSPF – how max-metric works

OSPF – how max-metric works

When you configure an OSPF interface with a cost, you can do it directly using ip ospf cost or have the cost calculated for you using auto-cost reference bandwidth.  Whichever method you choose, the OSPF RFC 2328 calls it “the cost of sending a packet out this interface”.  The Router LSA, or type-1 LSA, has a 16-bit field (65535 in decimal) to represent the “interface output cost”.  An interface cost of 65535 is also known as “LSInfinity”.

OSPF – How to withdraw an OSPF route

OSPF – How to withdraw an OSPF route

Todays post will cover how OSPF withdraws a route after a link failure or deconfiguration. There are some fantastic resources out there describing how to originate and advertise links and prefixes, but I haven’t found a good summary of OSPF link failure handling.

OSPF – Why are Router LSA P2P links so complicated?

OSPF – Why are Router LSA P2P links so complicated?

I earned my CCNA a good few years back,  but I still remember all the pencilled notes in the OSPF LSA section of my Todd Lammle study guide. I found the Router LSA information hard to learn, mainly because I didn’t understand why it was so complex.   In this post we’re going to take a closer look at the Router LSA,  specifically the point-to-point (P2P) link.  On completion, you should better understand why the Router LSA seems complex and you will…

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